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Eight Disciplines (8D) is a problem solving methodology and model designed to find the root cause of a particular problem within a business. It is most commonly used in the auto industry by quality engineers but has also been applied to other industries and sectors including retail, healthcare, finance, government and manufacturing.
The Eight Disciplines (8D) model helps business leaders put in place lasting corrective actions based on a data-driven analysis of the root cause of a particular set of problems. The disciplines, broken out into 8 stages, tend to be augmented by an initial planning stage.
Description of Eight Disciplines (8D)
The Eight Disciplines (8D) model and methodology is a process for problem solving in a team-oriented way which involves critical thinking and attention to detail. At the core of this model is the importance of finding the root cause of a problem. Once that problem is identified, the model then calls for the team to develop a solution to contain that problem through direct action to product customers and other stakeholders across the business. Once containment is complete, the team can then take corrective action to avoid future problems.
The value of the Eight Disciplines (8D) model comes from the structure and discipline required to successfully complete the approach. The methodology requires precise steps and a unique framework which drives systematic change and improves an entire process in order to avoid problems in the future.
The methodology has become one of the widest used in process engineering and has spread across numerous sectors and industries.
The Eight Disciplines (8D) are outlined below:
- D0: Plan for Problem Solving – The initial phase before entering into the Eight Disciplines (8D) should be to plan for solving the process by determining current constraints within the business environment.
- D1: Form a Team – Develop a team of core stakeholders who will have a say in how the problem is solved and how actions are implemented.
- D2: Describe the Problem – Specify the problem by identifying the 5 Ws and 2 Hs of the problem (who, what, where, when, why, how, and how many)
- D3: Develop an Interim Containment Plan – Identify actions which will quickly contain the problem and isolate it so that customers are not exposed.
- D4: Root Cause Analysis (RCA) and Escape Point – Determine possible causes for the problem and reasons why the problem could have occurred.
- D5: Permanent Corrective Action (PCA) – Identify corrective actions which will solve the problem for the customer and test assumptions to make sure these actions will work.
- D6: Implement and Validate the Permanent Corrective Action – Roll out definitive corrective actions which will have a lasting impact on the business and not allow this specific problem to repeat itself in the future.
- D7: Prevent Recurrence – Modify systems to ensure that these errors don’t occur again.
- D8: Closure and Team Celebration – Recognize the team for their efforts and celebrate success.
Praxie's Online Eight Disciplines (8D) Tools & Templates
The tools managers often use to highlight the obstacles presented by the Eight Disciplines (8D) are typically presentations, spreadsheets, and checklists. The 8D model supports the DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) framework in that each of the D’s aligns to an aspect of DMAIC. Get started with our Eight Disciplines (8D) Model template.
How to use it:
- Review each discipline and classify it was a high, medium, or low risk for your organization or process.
- For each, describe the issues that exist that represent opportunities to eliminate waste.
- Create an action plan to conduct your 8 Disciplines model.
Unlike most traditional process checklists and problem solving models, Praxie’s online Eight Disciplines (8D) model tool allows any team or organization to instantly begin working with our web templates and input forms. Our digital platform goes far beyond other software tools by including progress dashboards, data integration from existing documents or other SaaS software, elegant intuitive designs, and full access on any desktop or mobile device.